The three pedagogical practices were often intertwined throughout each lesson, however by far the most common practice was narrative instruction - or telling students what to think and how to act. In addition to presenting a framework for the purposes of education, Freire advocated several pedagogical techniques to foster critical consciousness and collective action. The responsibility and stigma rested upon the young mothers far more than the fathers in their study, which was also the case in my field sites. South African Journal of Higher Education 24 3: One of many influential publications, the Manifesto on Values, Education, and Democracy detailed the values that South African education should uphold, including: This practice of encouraging respect reflects teachers' short-term goals of maintaining school order, as well as longer-term goals of fostering social cohesion. My classroom observations did not discern distinct differences between how teachers of different genders treated learners of different genders in the classroom.
In the case above, Shabeni learned that he should 'have hope', 'never give up', and remain a 'good believer'.
And finally, while this form of debate promoted reflection on certain issues of social justice, it did not ultimately translate into forms of social activism. After explaining the unequal Bantu education system that was in place throughout the ss, he stated, 'You all are so fortunate. Grade 11 learner's book. After lecturing for the first half of the class, Mr Shabalala asked students to debate whether it was fair that white people, and Afrikaners in particular, should come into the country and fight. These critiques point to Freire's inspirational goals rather than clear directives, and the challenges of applying his overarching methodology of conscientisation. The rural school, Ikwezi High School 1lacked running water and educational resources, including textbooks and computers. Certain jobs were reserved for white people only, like being a doctor, so I could not become a doctor'.